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The testing effect applied to procedural skills using an echocardiogram simulator

Mooibroek, S.C. (2014) The testing effect applied to procedural skills using an echocardiogram simulator. Master's Thesis / Essay, Artificial Intelligence.

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Abstract

This study focuses on long-term retention of knowledge and skills required for making transthoracic echoes. Declarative knowledge and procedural skills are interconnected for many skills. Before making an echocardiogram, the practitioner needs to collect from declarative memory what echocardiogram is suitable to visualize what he is looking for. Before being able to diagnose a patient based on the echocardiogram, the practitioner needs the skill to make the appropriate echocardiogram. The aim of this study was to find the best way to achieve long-term retention of declarative knowledge and procedural skills by applying the testing effect and spacing effect. The testing effect explains that declarative memory can be improved when subjects retrieve information rather than restudying the material an equal amount of time; i.e. retesting is more effective than restudying (e.g. Abbott, 1909; Gates, 1917; Agarwal, Karpicke, Kang, Roediger III, & McDermott, 2008; Zaromb & Roediger III, 2010). The spacing effect explains that a repetition will be most beneficial ‘if the material had been in storage long enough as to be just on the verge of being forgotten’ (e.g. McGeoch, 1943; Banaji & Crowder, 1989; Pashler, Rohrer, Cepeda & Carpenter, 2006). The testing effect and spacing effect have been repeatedly shown on declarative knowledge; both effects have not been studied often in combination with procedural skills. Medical students have been trained on the basic anatomy and function of the heart (declarative knowledge) and received a theoretical introduction to transthoracic echocardiography. Additionally subjects were trained on making heart echoes (procedural skills). Groups with or without an interim test between the training and the final test have been compared on both their declarative performance and their procedural performance. As expected, interim testing has a beneficial effect on the long-term retention of declarative knowledge. This effect goes beyond declarative performance, as the groups that took an interim procedural test outperformed the groups that did not take an interim test. It seems the testing effect can be generalized to procedural skills.

Item Type: Thesis (Master's Thesis / Essay)
Supervisor:
Supervisor nameSupervisor E mail
Cnossen, F.UNSPECIFIED
Degree programme: Artificial Intelligence
Thesis type: Master's Thesis / Essay
Language: English
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 07:56
Last Modified: 02 May 2019 11:51
URI: http://fse.studenttheses.ub.rug.nl/id/eprint/11576

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