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Adipose tissue as endocrine organ during prehibernation

Jong, A. de (2016) Adipose tissue as endocrine organ during prehibernation. Bachelor's Thesis, Biology.

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Abstract

Hibernating animals deposit their adipose tissue in order to prepare for winter. Adipose tissue secretes several hormones and other peptides, e.g. leptin, adiponectin and IL-6, what makes adipose tissue and endocrine organ. The role of these different peptides in prehibernation are elucidated in this review. Thought, the function of these proteins is know, the mechanisms in prehibernation are still cloudy. This review focuses on different findings that are described. It appears that some mammals have different mechanism to increase their adiposity. A research conducted in racoon dogs showed increase in ghrelin, an antagonist of leptin. While arctic ground squirrels shows a partially leptin resistance. Leptin resistance may caused by several mechanisms. IL-6 (also secreted by adipose tissue) can induce SOCS3, a negative regulator of leptin and insulin signalling. The other mechanism is yet not proven in prehibernating animals but leptin-binding proteins were seen in hyperleptinemic mice during pregnancy. The role of adiponectin in prehibernation is also still unknown. Adiponectin affects the mitochondrial activity but no experiments were described with regard to hibernation. Although a low concentration adiponectin correlates with obesity and insulin resistance, no similarities were found between hibernation and obesity along with insulin resistance. When hibernators entering torpor their body temperature and metabolic rate decreases en oxygen consumption becomes very low. Hypoxia has also effect on adipose tissue and the secretion of several hormones but no research is conducted where the existence of hypoxia in adipocytes was proven though it was in skeletal muscle in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel and the little brown bat. It is highly possible adipose tissue is neurologically affected. Adipose tissue is influenced by the adrenergic system. And therefore it is interesting to investigate the brain-activity, by using brain mapping, prior to and during hibernation.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's Thesis)
Degree programme: Biology
Thesis type: Bachelor's Thesis
Language: English
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 08:11
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2018 08:11
URI: http://fse.studenttheses.ub.rug.nl/id/eprint/13696

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