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Order of Theory of Mind in the Reversed Bidding Game

Haarman, T. (2016) Order of Theory of Mind in the Reversed Bidding Game. Bachelor's Thesis, Artificial Intelligence.

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Abstract

People use theory of mind (ToM) to reason about the beliefs of others. This reasoning can be done recursively, with the different levels being called the order of ToM. First-order ToM equates to only reasoning about another’s beliefs, whereas second-order ToM is reasoning about the beliefs someone has about the beliefs of another, and so forth. In many studies it is argued that people use second-order ToM or higher in strategic games. In this paper, people played a strategic ToM game called 'reversed bidding' against a computer. The goal for the participants was to make a bid that was as high as possible, while being lower than what they thought the computer was going to bid. The participant choices were compared to the predictions of different orders of ToM agents. It was found that the results from the participants resembled the predictions of the zero-order ToM agent the closest, and showed less resemblance with higher orders of ToM. This suggests that people do not always use ToM in strategic situations.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's Thesis)
Degree programme: Artificial Intelligence
Thesis type: Bachelor's Thesis
Language: English
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 08:14
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2018 08:14
URI: http://fse.studenttheses.ub.rug.nl/id/eprint/14272

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