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An insight into lymphotoxin and TNF-α role in neuroinflammatory neurodegenerative diseases

Flores Hernández, R (2017) An insight into lymphotoxin and TNF-α role in neuroinflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. Master's Thesis / Essay, Behavioural and Cognitive Neurosciences.

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Abstract

Cytokines are signalling molecules that regulate inflammation and modulate cellular activities including differentiation, growth, and survival. They coordinate systemic immune response, being also actively involved in the regulation of the interaction between the central nervous system and the immune system. Both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a role in neuroinflammation processes that can be caused by different pathological states. The recognized pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α has been identified in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS), two neurodegenerative diseases causing neuroinflammation. The aim of this essay is to study the role of TNF-β (or lymphotoxin), a TNF-α homologue, in these neuroinflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. Both TNF-α and TNF-β can bind and activate TNFR1 and TNFR2. Signalling pathways triggered by TNFR1 activation mainly cause neurotoxicity, while TNFR2 activation is neuroprotective in AD and MS models. This suggests that the studied cytokines play a redundant role. Additionally, TNF-β can activate LTβR, whose signalling pathway causes demyelination during MS, suggesting a complementary function of TNF-β by means of its specific receptor. Even though confirmation studies are needed in order to completely understand the signalling pathways and the functions that TNF-α and TNF-β play in neuroinflammatory neurodegenerative diseases, the research on drugs that selectively inhibit or activate the involved receptors is promising. Furthermore, the presence of the cytokines during these processes could serve as an early diagnosis tool.

Item Type: Thesis (Master's Thesis / Essay)
Degree programme: Behavioural and Cognitive Neurosciences
Thesis type: Master's Thesis / Essay
Language: English
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 08:34
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2018 08:34
URI: http://fse.studenttheses.ub.rug.nl/id/eprint/16297

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