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The role of PVAT in cardiovascular disease

Veenker, Ramon (2018) The role of PVAT in cardiovascular disease. Bachelor's Thesis, Life Science and Technology.

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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in developed countries and is rapidly increasing due to the higher prevalence of obesity worldwide. Obesity exercises its function by altering adipose tissue, affecting its paracrine function and causing cardiovascular disease. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is fat which borders most vessels and signals to the vascular wall. In healthy conditions PVAT exercises an anti-contractile effect in the underlying vessels through PVAT-derived relaxing factors. However, in unhealthy conditions such as obesity PVAT is altered into a state known as PVAT dysfunction, negatively influencing cardiovascular health. How PVAT dysfunction affects overall health is dependent on its location as PVAT differs in function based on its location. Common affected factors among different tissues are decreased nitric oxide and adiponectin production, increased leukocyte infiltration and a phenotypical switch to a pro-inflammatory state. Differences in function are mainly attributed to whether PVAT resembles white adipocytes or brown adipocytes. PVAT resembling white adipocyte tissue has been found to be more frequently implicated with negative cardiovascular health compared to PVAT resembling brown adipocyte tissue. Thoracic aortic PVAT, which resembles brown adipocytes, maintains its healthy anti-contractile function in unhealthy conditions. However, abdominal aortic PVAT resembles white adipocytes and consequently is often associated with cardiovascular disease. Other adipose tissues around organs often associated with cardiovascular disease are epicardial adipose tissue and renal perivascular tissue. Both show a switch to a pro-inflammatory state in obesity. Treatment options are diverse ranging from surgery to oral supplements, yet exact treatment mechanisms among different PVAT remains mostly undetermined. In conclusion PVAT heterogeneity is an important factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, with different sites having differing effects and being differently affected by unhealthy conditions. Although diverse treatment options are available focus should be shifted towards developing treatment specifically for affected PVAT sites.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's Thesis)
Supervisor:
Supervisor nameSupervisor E mail
Deelman, L.E.l.e.deelman@umcg.nl
Degree programme: Life Science and Technology
Thesis type: Bachelor's Thesis
Language: English
Date Deposited: 01 Jul 2018
Last Modified: 03 Jul 2018 12:47
URI: http://fse.studenttheses.ub.rug.nl/id/eprint/17534

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