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Adult neurogenesis

Velde, F.T.A. van der (2011) Adult neurogenesis. Bachelor's Thesis, Biology.

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Abstract

For a long time, the generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain was disputed. Nowadays, neurogenesis is an accepted phenomenon and has been extensively studied. There are two major brain areas where neural stem cells are located and neurogenesis occurs. In the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The function of the newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb has been connected with improved olfactory memory and discrimination, where the hippocampus has been linked with learning and memory. The integration and proliferation of these neural stem cells has probably been regulated through several mediators, such as neurotransmitters, growth factors and intracellular mechanisms. However, the regulation of neurogenesis was complex and more research is needed to understand this completely. Not only the microenvironment can affect neurogenesis. Enriched environment and exercise was linked with increasing neurogenesis, where alcohol, stress, age and sleep deprivation resulted in impaired neurogenesis. Inflammation and stress can also negatively affect survival and proliferation of new neurons. Inflammation has probably positive as well as negative influences due to interleukins and prostaglandins. However, more research has shown the negative effect and activation of microglia also resulted in reduced neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis can be very interesting for therapeutical treatment. Major depressive disorder was linked with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Several antidepressants have shown to increase the amount of proliferation. However, neural stem cell proliferation in humans is limited neurogenesis is maybe a way to improve neurodegenerative diseases.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's Thesis)
Degree programme: Biology
Thesis type: Bachelor's Thesis
Language: English
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 07:45
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2018 07:45
URI: http://fse.studenttheses.ub.rug.nl/id/eprint/9634

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