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Essay : CRISPR, a prokaryotic adaptive defense mechanism against invading phages

Lente, T. van (2013) Essay : CRISPR, a prokaryotic adaptive defense mechanism against invading phages. Master's Thesis / Essay, Biology.

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A recent discovered defense system protects prokaryotes from invading phages. This system makes use of RNA guided protein complexes to cleave invading DNA. This so called CRISPR has the ability to constantly adjust itself on a genomic level to obtain immunity for phages that were encountered earlier. The system is composed of repeated DNA sequences that are separated by variable spacer sequences obtained from phage DNA and a set of CRISPR associated (Cas) genes. CRISPR defense is obtained in three steps: (i) adaptation of spacers from phage DNA, (ii) expression and maturation of the CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and (iii) interference of invading phage DNA by crRNA and Cas proteins. Recognition of invading phages is done through a short sequence (PAM) that is located adjacent to the targeted spacer on phage DNA. There are other possible applications regarding the CRISPR interference mechanism. The Cas9 protein can be used in combination with designed crRNA to cleave a specific location of chromosomal DNA in a wide variety of organisms. This is a useful tool for genome editing and induction of mutations.

Item Type: Thesis (Master's Thesis / Essay)
Degree programme: Biology
Thesis type: Master's Thesis / Essay
Language: English
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 07:55
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2018 07:55

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