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Model Predictive Control for cooperation of multiple PtG facilities

Kuiper, I. (2014) Model Predictive Control for cooperation of multiple PtG facilities. Master's Thesis / Essay, Industrial Engineering and Management.

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Currently Power-to-Gas is a topic that is gaining in popularity in the energy sector. Especially in Germany, many Power-to-Gas pilot plants have been deployed. A lot of studies focus on technical feasibility and sole operation of PtG facilities. However, none of the current studies focus on how to coordinate the supply of the PtG facilities embedded in the gas grid, mobility sector, and power grid. PtG facilities can create revenue as a result of the energy supply. The goal of this study is therefore to control the supply of PtG facilities offered to the energy grids without exceeding grid capacities and technical constraints of PtG facilities. To regulate the supply level of PtG facilities while incorporating all complicating constraints, model predictive control (MPC) scheme is employed in this study. With this scheme, PtG facilities can obtain more revenue as the scheme takes into account the estimates of future selling prices and demand patterns in the energy grids. The facilities can therefore have better management of supply to anticipate future states. Dual decomposition combined with sub-gradient methods is here employed to solve the problem in a distributed fashion. In this way, each PtG facility can locally optimize the usage of their energy sources. This scheme provides insights on how PtG facilities bid their supply to the operators of the energy grids and how the operators react on total supply bids offered by the facilities. The performance and capability of the proposed scheme are evaluated. The proposed distributed scheme is applicable for large number of PtG facilities embedded in the energy grids and caters to the distributed nature of the energy generators in a community. To avoid overloading grid, the corresponding operator may charge extra fee to PtG facilities for utilizing the grid service. Furthermore, a good initialization of the distribution charges published by the operators of the energy grids can reduce the computational load. Our finding that an operator of an energy grid will immediately react on the current situation of other energy grids is confirmed by our observations. With current associated costs, selling energy prices, and demand levels, the profitability of PtG facilities is negative. However, incorporating possible developments related to the cost of equipment, demand for hydrogen and associated regulations may result in a positive impact on the profit.

Item Type: Thesis (Master's Thesis / Essay)
Degree programme: Industrial Engineering and Management
Thesis type: Master's Thesis / Essay
Language: English
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 08:04
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2018 08:04

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