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Essay: Mechanisms that lead to aneuploidy in cells and its link with cancer

Borneman, A (2016) Essay: Mechanisms that lead to aneuploidy in cells and its link with cancer. Bachelor's Thesis, Biology.

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For growth and repair already existing cells need to duplicated. This is accomplished through a sequence of events, known as the cell cycle. The cell cycle is tightly controlled by a number of checkpoints, like the spindle assembly checkpoint, to ensure that the duplication and segregation of the chromosomes occur correctly. Defects in cell cycle regulation can cause chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. Mechanisms like centrosome amplification and merotelic attachments are observed in cancer cells with CIN, in contrast spindle assembly checkpoint defects are rare in tumor formation. However, overexpression of the SAC proteins is often seen and is known to lead to aneuploidy. Aneuploidy causes growth defects, however cancers cells seem to have mechanisms to overcome this. New treatment strategies for cancer that use its aneuploid character are being investigated. Inhibition of the kinesin motor HSET seems promising. Centrosome amplification is almost exclusively seen in cancer cells and when centrosome clustering is suppressed, the cells will undergo multipolar divisions which are lethal. So, there are multiple mechanisms that can lead to aneuploidy in cells, of which lagging chromosomes during anaphase is the most common mitotic defect. The aneuploid character of cancer is an attractive target for treatment, because it is not necessary to first determine the mutations and deregulated pathways of the cancer cells. Further research is performed to find suitable targets.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's Thesis)
Degree programme: Biology
Thesis type: Bachelor's Thesis
Language: English
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 08:10
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2018 08:10

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