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The effects of network topology on energy networks

Land, J (2017) The effects of network topology on energy networks. Master's Thesis / Essay, Computing Science.

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Energy grids are shifting from centralized and predictable fossil based power generation towards more sustainable sources such as solar and wind. Inherent to generating electricity from renewable sources is the volatility of such generation, this volatility introduces new challenges for the transmission grid operators to balance the grid and guarantee secure operation. Due to patterns in weather the power output of renewable generators cannot be perfectly predicted, nor can the demand of consumers. These uncertainties can introduce unbalance into the system. In order to resolve this unbalance as a last resort the transmission system operator can shed load from consumers or curtail power generation from renewable sources. A way to alleviate the effects of the volatility is to introduce energy storage systems into the grid. These systems can be charged when there is an excess in power generation, by storing the energy surplus, and discharged during periods of high demand, reducing the risk of Expected Energy Not Supplied(EENS). This leads to a better utilization of renewable power sources over time and a more secure power supply for consumers. In order to determine the feasibility of a transmission grid with energy storage systems we have developed a program that simulates several realistic scenarios using Monte Carlo techniques. The aim of this work is to determine the optimal size and location of storage devices to reduce the EENS and reduce congestion on the most utilized lines. Moreover we compare the results across 3 different topologies, i.e. a modified IEEE-96 bus, a small world topology and a preferential attachment topology. For each network we place the storage according to three different siting policies. We determine the optimal size by comparing the investment costs of storage and the economical values of their benefits. The investment costs of storage are calculated according to three different pricing profiles and two different energy to power ratios. In case of the cheapest prices, we find that the storage is economically viable with a size up to 30% and 20% of the installed renewable generation capacity, depending on the energy to power ratio. In contrast, in the most expensive scenario a relatively small storage size is still feasible when compared to the savings gained from EENS reduction. Regarding the siting, placing storage near consumers is the most effective in reducing EENS, while different policies do not significantly change the power flow. However we do find significant cases to discuss on the modified IEEE-96 bus and the small world topology.

Item Type: Thesis (Master's Thesis / Essay)
Degree programme: Computing Science
Thesis type: Master's Thesis / Essay
Language: English
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 08:26
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2018 08:26

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