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Immunogenic versus tolerogenic mRNA Vaccines

Haaijer, Daan (2024) Immunogenic versus tolerogenic mRNA Vaccines. Bachelor's Thesis, Biology.


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This thesis describes the critical differences between two mRNA based vaccines. The thesis compares the COVID-19 vaccine 19 BNT162b2 from Pfizer/BioNTech and a MS vaccine from Krienke et al. that is currently under investigation. While the vaccines are based on a similar mRNA platform the COVID-19 vaccine elicits an immunogenic response the MS vaccine elecits a tolerogenic response. Both vaccines incorporate a modified N1 methyl pseudouridine (m1Ψ), which in the COVID-19 vaccine is described as their holy grail for the immunogenic response, but is also used in the tolerogenic MS vaccine. Both vaccines use a composition that includes LPX, but with a different cationic lipid composition. The COVID-19 vaccine uses a segmented poly(A) tail while the MS vaccine does not use this. although there are some differences the most likely difference that causes the opposite immune reaction is the purification method. The MS vaccine uses HPLC or cellulose to remove double-stranded RNA while this is not described for the COVID-19 vaccine. Thus, the surprising finding of this thesis is that the immunogenic reaction of the COVID-19 vaccine might be at least partly attributable to a contamination with double stranded RNA, whereas the tolerogenic reaction to the MS vaccine is explained the absence of this.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's Thesis)
Supervisor name: Bogaart, G. van den
Degree programme: Biology
Thesis type: Bachelor's Thesis
Language: English
Date Deposited: 10 Jan 2024 12:58
Last Modified: 10 Jan 2024 12:59

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