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Lung cancer screening : an overview

Bruintjes, J.J. (2011) Lung cancer screening : an overview. Bachelor's Thesis, Biology.

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The most common cause of cancer related death in developed countries is lung cancer. In 2008 it accounted for 18% of deaths worldwide, having a 5-year survival rate between 10-16%. The reason this survival rate is so incredibly low is the fact that most found lung cancers are late stadium tumors. Early stage diagnoses would result in 5-year survival rates between 60-70%. Lung cancer screening could help increase the survival rates and lower lung cancer related mortality. The aim of this study is to describe and analyze the available screening strategies and point one out as most promising according to percentage stage 1 found cancers. The first step that had to be taken researching lung cancer screening strategies is to determine whether lung cancer is a suitable screening candidate. This was done by following screening principles conducted by Wilson and Junger. After concluding it is indeed a suitable candidate a literature search was conducted. The main focus lay on randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews due to the fact that they are the most reliable evidence. Systematic reviews were used to give an overview of what is known about lung cancer screening. Eventually, seven randomized controlled trials were selected to analyze screening strategies. The variables sex, age, risk factor definition, recruitment, study design (intervention and control arm), screening strategy including screening techniques and lung cancer stadia distribution were compared to make a proper analyses and description. All studies used the same initial screening technique, low-dose computed tomography, but differed in follow up diagnostic algorithms. Most studies used both male and female subjects, age limits lay between 50-75 yr. and recruitment was mostly volunteer based. Risk was defined as a 20 or 30 pack-year history of smoking. The NELSON trial showed the highest percentages of stage 1 found lung cancer. Thus the screening strategy used in the NELSON trial has the most potential and should be researched further.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's Thesis)
Degree programme: Biology
Thesis type: Bachelor's Thesis
Language: English
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2018 07:45
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2018 07:45

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